Additional Resources for Recycling Concrete

Trade Associations

The Construction & Demolition Recycling Association (CDRA) is the only association devoted exclusively to the needs of the rapidly expanding North American construction & demolition debris processing and recycling industry. A CDRA document of specific interest to concrete recyclers is the 2012 white paper, “Recycled Concrete Aggregate: A Sustainable Choice for Unbound Base,” which was compiled by Cecil Jones, president, Diversified Engineering Services and retired chief materials engineer for North Carolina’s DOT. In December 2014, the association published a white paper on the environmental and economic impact of the C&D recycling industry. The paper, “The Benefits of Construction and Demolition Materials Recycling in the United States,” was assembled by a research team led by Dr. Timothy Townsend of the University of Florida. As with all CDRA white papers, these documents are available free of charge as a member benefit to those who belong to the Construction & Demolition Recycling Association. White papers are available to non-CDRA members for a fee of $500. Please contact [email protected] for more information.

The U.S. Green Building Council is the nation’s foremost coalition of leaders from across the building industry working to promote buildings that are environmentally responsible, profitable and healthy places to live and work.

The LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Green Building Rating System is a voluntary national standard in which construction and renovation projects earn credits toward certification as sustainable buildings. USGBC’s members developed and continue to refine LEED.

ACPA – The American Concrete Pavement Association represents concrete pavement contractors, cement companies, equipment and material manufacturers and suppliers. Their mission is to make portland cement concrete the material of choice for airport, highway, industrial, street and local road pavements.

Founded in 1916, the Portland Cement Association represents cement companies in the United States and Canada. It conducts market development, engineering, research, education, and public affairs programs.

Download: An Engineer’s Guide to Building Green With Concrete The PCA (Portland Cement Association) Concrete Technology: Recycled Aggregates page.

The Innovative Pavement Research Foundation (IPRF) is a 501(c) (3) corporation, jointly sponsored by the American Concrete Pavement Association and Portland Cement Association.

Beyond Roads, which is sponsored by the Asphalt Education Partnership (AEP), is a resource for information on the asphalt industry, its operations, its products and issues.

The Asphalt Recycling & Reclaiming Association is an international non-profit trade association of contractors, equipment manufacturers, suppliers, public officials, and engineers engaged in the recycling and reclaiming of asphalt.

NSSGA is the National Stone, Sand and Gravel Association. On Feb. 12, 2001, the merged National Stone Association and National Aggregates Association became the NSSGA. The association represents the crushed stone, sand and gravel-or aggregates-industries.

The American Road & Transportation Builders Association (ARTBA) is the U.S. transportation construction industry's representative in Washington, D.C. Its mission: advocating strong federal investment in the nation's transportation infrastructure to meet public demand for a safe and efficient business transportation network.

The Associated General Contractors of America (AGC) is the nation's largest and oldest construction trade association, established in 1918 after a request by President Woodrow Wilson. Wilson recognized the construction industry's national importance and desired a partner with which the government could discuss and plan for the advancement of the nation. AGC has been fulfilling that mission for the last 85 years.

Founded in 1904, the American Concrete Institute (ACI) has produced more than 400 technical documents, reports, guides, specifications, and codes for the best use of concrete; conducts about 125 educational seminars each year; and has 13 different certification programs for concrete practitioners, as well as a scholarship program to promote careers in the industry.

The American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) is a not-for-profit organization that promotes the beneficial use of coal combustion products (CCPs).

The American Forest and Paper Association is a trade association for wood, paper and wood products.

The National Ready Mixed Concrete Association supports continued expansion and improvement of the ready mixed concrete industry through leadership, advocacy, professional development, promotion and partnering.

The American Society of Concrete Contractors was formed by and for concrete contractors and others who provide services and goods to the industry.

The Associated Builders and Contractors (ABC) association represents 23,000 merit shop construction and construction-related firms in 79 chapters across the United States.

The Strategic Development Council (SDC) brings together the concrete industry, along with government, academia, and customers, to focus on collaborative problem-solving in meaningful technology advancement.

Government Agencies

Educational Institutions

The Recycled Materials Resource Center (RMRC) is a national center created to promote the wise use of recycled materials (pavements, secondary, waste, byproduct materials) in the highway environment. The Center is a partnership with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). 

The School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment (SSEBE) at Arizona State University’s Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering studies technologies for implementation in the construction industry and promotes international relationships. ASU also offers ASU online, an online construction management program that can be used for distance learning.

The International Center for Aggregates Research (ICAR) is a joint operation of The University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M University. ICAR’s goal is finding the most efficient and effective use of the aggregates industry’s resources through research, education, and information exchange.

The National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT) at Auburn University NCAT’s mission: Improve HMA performance through research, education, and information services.

The World Center for Concrete Technology (WCCT) offers training, educational research and conferences for the concrete products industries.


Other Organizations

The American Council for Construction Education (ACCE) accredits construction education programs in colleges and universities that request its evaluation and meet its standards and criteria. 

The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials advocates transportation-related policies and provides technical services to support states in their efforts to efficiently and safely move people and goods.

Since 1948, the International Road Federation (IRF) has been active in the advocacy of all issues relevant to the road industry, from financing to technology and from development to safety.

Greener Buildings provides an overview of the world of greener buildings, including the latest findings on the bottom-line payoffs.

The Foundation for Pavement Preservation (FP2) is a non-profit organization supported by the pavement preservation industry; contractors, material suppliers, equipment manufacturers, consulting engineers, and academia. provides access to North America's Most Comprehensive searchable database of more than 17,000 companies involved in the Recycling Process throughout the USA and Canada.

The Iberoamerican Federation of Ready Mixed Concrete (FIHP) is a non-profit organization that gathers the national associations and companies from the Ibero-american countries which may use ready mixed concrete.

ECOBA represents its members in different regulatory bodies and work together with European Commission directorates, European Union standardization committees, International Treaty Organizations, National standardization committees, and research institutes.

AggRegain is a free sustainable aggregates information service provided by the WRAP Aggregates Programme.

Australian EPA development of waste and resource recovery guidelines.



This Dutch research is on the sustainable management and use of recycled aggregates.

Within the scope of this study, different concrete mixtures were manufactured to determine the influence of aggregate derived from recycled mineral building material referring to stress-strain relation of concrete.

This research reviews the influence of recycled aggregate on the stress-strain relation of concrete.

The Transportation Research Board’s (TRB) Research in Progress (RiP) website contains the RiP database which contains over 7,800 transportation research projects. The RiP database allows users in State DOT to add, modify and delete information on their current research projects.

The use of demolished concrete as aggregate in the production of fresh concrete was investigated by the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow together with partners at La Sapienza in Rome and the Italian contractors Mabbo Appunto and Pescara.

Australia Advances Series Eight on recycled concrete by Kwesi Sagoe-Crentsi CSIRO Manufacturing and Infrastructure Technology.

Download: University of Dundee Concrete Technology Unit – Demonstration Project Utilising Coarse Recycled Aggregates



If you have any suggestions to add to these resources, please contact the CDRA at [email protected].

Books and Manuals

Liu, Tony and Meyer, Christian
Recycling Concrete and Other Materials for Sustainable Development
American Concrete Institute, 2004.

RILEM Publications 
International RILEM Conference on the Use of Recycled Materials in Buildings and Structures
Bagneux, France, 2004.

Kosmatka, S.H., Kerkhoff, B., and Panarese, W.C.
Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures
14th Edition, 2002.

The Basic Asphalt Recycling Manual (BARM)

Portland Cement Association (PCA) Library Bibliographies

Reports and Journals

Alan D. Buck, “Recycled Concrete as a Source of Aggregate”, ACI Journal, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, May 1977.

A.A. Di Maio, C.J. Zega, and L. P. Traversa, “Estimation of Compressive Strength of Recycled Concrete with the Ultrasonic Method”, Journal of ASTM International, Vol. 2, No. 5, May 2005.

Fergus, J.S. “The Effect of Mix Design on the Design of Pavement Structures When Utilizing Recycled Portland Cement Concrete as Aggregate”, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Michigan State University, l980.

FHWA, “Recycled Concrete: A Valuable Transportation Resource”, 2005,

FHWA, “Recycled Concrete Aggregate”, FHWA National Review, 2004,

Forster, S. W. “Recycled Concrete as Aggregate”, Concrete International, American Concrete Institute, Michigan, October l986.

Hansen, T.C., and Boegh, E., “Elasticity and Drying Shrinkage of Recycled-Aggregate Concrete”, ACI Journal, Volume 82. No. 5, September-October, 1985.

T.C. Hansen, “Mechanical Properties of Recycled Aggregate Concrete” 
RILEM Report, Recycling Demolished Concrete and Masonry, 1992.

T.C. Hansen, Recycling of Demolished Concrete and Masonry 
RILEM Report 6, E & FN Spon, London, 1992.

Information on Recycled Concrete Aggregate from the Recycled Materials Resource Center, University of Wisconsin.

B. Juric, L. Hanzic, R. Ilic, N. Samec, “Utilization of Municipal Solid Waste Bottom Ash and Recycled Aggregate in Concrete,” Waste Management (2005)1-7.

Katz, A., “Treatments for the Improvement of Recycled Aggregate” American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 16, No. 6, November/December, 2004.

Kikuchi, M., and Mukai, T., “A Study on the Properties of Recycled Aggregate and Recycled Aggregate Concrete,” Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal, No. 31, l983.

Lee, S., Moon, H., Swamy, R., Kim, S. and Kim, J., “Sulfate Attack of Mortars Containing Recycled Fine Aggregates”, ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 102, No. 4, July-August, 2005.

Salomon M. Levy, Paulo Helene, “Durability of Recycled Aggregates Concrete: A Safe Way to Sustainable Development” Cement and Concrete Research 34 (2004) 1975-1980.

Li, X., Gress, D., “Mitigating alkali silica reaction in concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate”, Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1979, pp. 30-35, 2006.

Meininger, Rick, Personal Communications, August 2005.

Mukai, T., Kemi, T., Nakagawa, M. and Kikuchi, M. “Study of Reuse of Waste Concrete for Aggregate of Concrete,” Proceeding of the Seminar on Energy and Resources Conservation in Concrete Technology, Japan-US Cooperative Science Program, San Francisco, CA, 1979.

F.T. Olorunsogo, N. Padayachee, “Performance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Monitored by Durability Indexes” Cement and Concrete Research 32 (2002) 179-185.

Otsuki, N., Miyazato, S., and Yodsudjai, W., “Influence of Recycled Aggregate on Interfacial Transition Zone, Strength, Chloride Penetration and Carbonation of Concrete”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 5, pp. 443-451, September-October, 2003.

C. Park, J. Sim, “Fundamental Properties of Concrete Using Recycled Concrete Aggregate Produced Through Advanced Recycling Progress,” TRB 2006, 13p, #06-0810.

Khaldoun Rahal, “Mechanical Properties of Concrete with Recycled Coarse Aggregate” Building Environment (2005) 1-8

K. Ramamurthy, K.S. Gumaste, “Properties of Recycled Aggregate Concrete”, Indian Concrete Journal, 72:11, 49-53, 1998.

Rasheeduzzafar, A. K., and A. Khan, “Recycled Concrete- A Source of New Aggregate,” Journal of the American Society of Testing Materials, Cement, Concrete and Aggregate, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1984.

Download: Ready Mixed Concrete Industry LEED Reference Guide Update, August 2017

"Recycling Concrete Pavement," Concrete Paving Technology, TB-014P
American Concrete Pavement Association, Skokie, Illinois, 1993.

Recycling Portland Cement Concrete, DP-47-85
Demonstration Project Program, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 1985.

Removal and Reuse of Hardened Concrete, ACI Committee 555R-04 Report, American Concrete Institute, Michigan, 2004.

D. Sani, G. Moriconji, G. Fava, V. Corinaldesi, “Leachingand Mechanical Behavior of Concrete Manufactured with Recycled Aggregates” Waste Management 25 (2005) 177-182.

Scott, H.C., and Gress, D.L. “Mitigating ASR in Recycled Concrete”, ACI SP-219-5, American Concrete Institute, Vol. 219, March 1, 2004.

Shayan, A. and Xu, A. “Performance and Properties of Structural Concrete Made with Recycled Concrete Aggregate”, ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 100, No. 5, September-October, 2003.

Snyder, M., “Physical and Mechanical Properties of Recycled PCC Aggregate Concrete” Interim Report-Task A, DTFH61-93C-00133, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, June 1994.

Sri Ravindrarajah, R., and C.T. Tam, “Properties of Concrete Made with Crushed Concrete as Coarse Aggregate,” Magazine of Concrete Research, Volume 37, No. 130, Cement and Concrete Association, March 1985.

Sri Ravindrarajah, R., and C.T. Tam, “Recycling Concrete as Fine Aggregate in Concrete” International Journal of Cement Composites and Lightweight Concrete, Volume 9, No. 4, November 1987.

David Stark, The Use of Recycled-Concrete Aggregate from Concrete Exhibiting-Silica Reactivity, Research and Development Bulletin RD114,
Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Illinois, 1996.

Stark, D., “The Use of Recycled –Concrete Aggregate from Concrete Exhibiting Alkali-Silica Reactivity”, PCA Research and Development Bulletin RD114, Skokie, Illinois, Portland Cement Association 1996.

Vivian Tam, X.F. Gao, C.M. Tam, “Microstructural Analysis of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Produced from Two-Stage Mixing Approach” Cement and Concrete Research 35 (2005) 1995-1203.

Mostafa Tavakoli, Parviz Soroushian, “Drying Shrinkage Behavior of Recycled Aggregate Concrete,” Concrete International, p. 58-61 Nov. 1996

Tavakoli, M., Soroushian, P., “Strengths of Recycled Aggregate Concrete made using Field-demolished Concrete as Aggregate”, ACI Materials Journal. Vol. 93, No. 2, pp. 182-190. l996.

Technical Advisory, “Use of Recycled Concrete Pavement for Aggregate in Hydraulic Cement Concrete Pavement,” T 5040.37, July, 2007

Download: Transportation Applications of Recycled Concrete Aggregate, FHWA State of the Practice National Review, Sept. 2004

William Turley, "What Does it Cost to Recycle Concrete & Asphalt"
C&D Debris Recycling, Chicago, April 1994.

Use of Recycled Materials – Final Report of RILEM TC 198-URM, edited by Ch. F. Hendriks, G.M.T. Janssen and E. Vazquez, pp. 41-43,

Download: Washington State Department of Transportation - Use of Recycled Concrete Aggregate in PCCP: Literature Search - June, 2009

M. C. Won, Use of Crushed Concrete as Aggregate for Pavement Concrete,
Research Section, Construction Division, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin, Texas, 1999.

Jianzhurang Xiao, Jiabin Li, Ch. Zhang, “Mechanical Properties of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Under Uniaxial Loading, “Cement and Concrete Research 35(2005) 1187-1194.

Yrjanson, W. A., Recycling of Portland Cement Concrete Pavements, NCHRP Synthesis 154, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 1989.

Tsung-Yeuh Tu, Yuen-Yuen Chen, Chao-Lung Hwang, “Properties of HPC with Recycled Aggregates”, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 36, No 5, pp. 943-950, May 2006.

Roumiana Zaharieva, Francois Buyle-Bodin, Eric Wirquin, “Frost Resistance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete” Cement and Concrete Research 34 (2004) 1928-1932.

FHWA Report: "The Use of Recycled Materials in Highway Construction"

User Guidelines for Waste and Byproduct Materials in Pavement Construction
FHWA Contact: Marcia Simon (202) 493-3071

Pavement Recycling Guidelines for State and Local Governments
FHWA Contact: Mr. Kevin Connor (202) 493-3187

Transportation Applications of Recycled Concrete Aggregate
FHWA Contact: Mr. Jason Harrington 202-366-1576

ICAR Publications (International Center for Aggregate Recycling)

Research Report ICAR 101-1
An Investigation of the Status of By-Product Fines in the United States
The handling and disposal of fines produced as a result of the aggregate crushing and production process are some of the major problems facing the aggregate industry today, having both economic and environmental implications. This report describes a major effort undertaken to quantify and characterize these fines, their location, character, and sales.

Research Report ICAR 101-2F
Framework for Development of a Classification Procedure for Use of Aggregate Fines in Concrete
The focus of this project was to examine the methods and test procedures used in the past to characterize the properties of fines, and develop, on a preliminary basis, a framework to characterize and catalogue the properties of aggregate fines, propose new ones that would eventually complement a set of guidelines for the use of aggregate fines in portland cement concrete. Possible applications of aggregate fines, such as in high-performance concrete, controlled low strength materials, and insulated concrete forms are discussed as future directions of research.

Research Report ICAR 102-1F
An Experimental Study on the Guidelines for Using Higher Contents of Aggregate Microfines in Portland Cement Concrete
This report presents some of the effects of high fines on the properties of cement mortar and concrete.

ICAR 103: Use of High Fines Concrete (HFC) in Insulated Concrete Form (ICF) Construction
This project work consisted of developing technical data to justify, from the standpoint of material properties (of aggregate fines and HFC), construction efficiency, cost competitiveness, and energy performance, a basis for the use of high-fines concrete (HFC) inside ICF wall systems.

ICAR 104: Guidelines for Proportioning Optimized Concrete Mixtures with High Microfines
The optimization of aggregates is advantageous for economical and technical reasons; however, the availability of materials and construction operations can dictate the proportions of fine and coarse aggregates. Some general guidelines based on field experience, other investigations and the results of this investigation are presented.

ICAR 104-1F: The Effects of Aggregates Characteristics on the Performance of Portland Cement Concrete
The effect of shape, texture and grading of aggregates on fresh concrete was evaluated experimentally, quantified by means a proportioning method based on packing density concepts, the Compressible Packing Model (CPM), and analyzed by an empirical tool suggested by Shilstone.

ICAR 105-1: Summary of Concrete Workability Test Methods
This project describes 61 test methods for measuring concrete workability.

ICAR 105-2: Qualification of Concrete Workability by Means of the Vibrating Slope Apparatus
A new device, the Vibrating Slope Apparatus (VSA), developed for qualifying concrete workability under vibration, was borrowed by the International Center for Aggregates Research (ICAR) Project 105 researchers for evaluation.

ICAR 105-3F: Development of a Portable Rheometer for Fresh Portland Cement Concrete
The purpose of this research was to identify an effective field test method for measuring the workability of concrete in general and of high-microfines concrete in particular.

In this 201 series you will find the following reports:

ICAR 201 Series: Superpave Aggregate Specifications
A comprehensive research program was conducted in three concurrent phases which examined the Superpave fine aggregate angularity (FAA) test, the restricted zone requirement, and the voids in the mineral (VMA) specification.

201-1, “Evaluation of Superpave Fine Aggregate Angularity Specification,” Arif Chowdhury, Joe Button, Vipin Kohle and David Jahn.

201-2, “Effects of Superpave Restricted Zone on Permanent Deformation,” Arif Chowdhury, Joe Button, and Jose Grau.

201-3F, “Effects of Aggregate Gradation and Angularity on VMA and Rutting Resistance,” Dae-Wook Park, Arif Chowdhury, and Joe Button.

Research Report ICAR 203-1
Evaluation of Aggregate Characteristics Affecting HMA Concrete Performance
This report documents the outcomes of the ICAR study on the Evaluation of Aggregate Characteristics Affecting HMA Concrete Performance. This study was conducted with support from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) program on Simulation, Imaging, and Mechanics of Asphalt Pavements at Texas A&M University.

Research Report ICAR 301-1F
Alkali-Silica Reaction in Portland Cement Concrete: Testing Methods and Mitigation Alternatives, (pp 548)
Identifying the susceptibility of an aggregate to alkali-silica reaction (ASR) before using it in concrete is one of the most efficient practices for preventing damage and failure.

In this 501 series you will find the following reports:

ICAR 501 Series: Increased Single-Lift Thicknesses for Aggregate Base Courses
This project was initiated specifically to investigate the potential for placing unbound aggregate base courses in thicker lifts to improve pavement performance, reduce costs, and increase the amount of aggregates used.

501-2, “A Study on the Feasibility of Compacting Unbound Graded Aggregate Base Courses in Thicker Lifts than Presently Allowed by State Departments of Transportation,” Jaime L. Bueno, Kenneth H. Stokoe, II, and John J. Allen

501-3, “Prediction of Working Load Displacements Under Plate Loading Tests from Seismic Stiffness Measurements,” Michael L. Myers, Kenneth H. Stokoe, II, and John J. Allen

501-5F, “Increased Single-Lift Thicknesses for Unbound Aggregate Base Courses,” John J. Allen , Jaime L. Bueno, Michael E. Kalinski, Michael L. Myers, and Kenneth H. Stokoe, II

Reports 501-1 and 501- 4 were internal documentation only and were not published.

ICAR 502 Series: Structural Considerations of Unbound Aggregate Layers for Mechanistic Design
AASHTO is moving towards a mechanistic pavement design procedure for the Design Guide- 2002. This guide will establish the structural contribution of various materials used as pavement layers.

In this 502 series are the following reports:

502-1, “Structural Characteristics of Unbound Aggregate Bases to meet AASHTO 2002 Design Requirements: Interim Report,” Alex Adu-Osei, Dallas Little and Robert Lytton

502-2, “Field Validation of the cross-Anisotropic Behavior of Unbound Aggregate Bases,” Erol Tutumluer, Alex Adu-Osi, Dallas Little and Robert Lytton

502-3, “Characterization of Unbound Granular Layers in Flexible Pavements,” Alex Adu-Osei

ICAR 503 Series: Rapid Test to Establish Grading of Unbound Aggregates
The objective was to develop a test method that can operate in an automatic, continuous sampling mode.

In this 503 series are the following reports:

503-1, “Evaluation of Potential Aggregate Grading Technologies,” Alan F. Rauch, Carl T. Hass, Hyoungkwan Kim, and Craig Browne

503-2, “An Evaluation of Automated Devices to Replace and Augment Manual Sieve Analyses in Determining Aggregate Gradation,” Alan F. Rauch, Carl T. Haas, Craig Browne, and Hyoungkwan Kim

503-3F, “Automation of Aggregate Characterization Using Laser Profiling and Digital Image Analysis,” Carl T. Haas, Alan F. Rauch, Hyoungkwan Kim, and Craig Browne